Indonesia is home to a wide variety of peoples and cultures
that encompasses 17,500 islands, 300 languages, numerous religions,
and a wealth of vocal and instrumental styles. Because of
this diversity, there is not specific Indonesian folk music
that can be said to represent all people in the country. To
summarize this vastness here would be impossible, but there
are some particularly well-known styles that can highlight
the beauty of this immense country's music.
Indonesia is an archipelago, or group, of islands found in
Southeast Asia that spans from the island of Aceh in the west
to Irian Jaya (one half of New Guinea) in the east. The capital,
Jakarta, is a city of over 9 million people and is found on
the island of Java that lies roughly in the middle of the
The gamelan music of Java and Bali is far and away the most
well-known Indonesian music style outside the country. There
are many different types of gamelan ensembles, from formal,
ceremonial ensembles to more informal folk groups. Though labeled
under folk music here, many gamelan styles can arguably be called
art music because of the professional nature of the musicians
Much like an orchestra in the United States, gamelan ensembles
contain combinations of many different types of instruments,
including metallophones, drums, cymbals, flutes, plucked lutes,
gongs, and even vocalists.
Gongs are the most visible and audible instruments in a gamelan
ensemble. In Java, gongs called kenong are laid flat
on a frame and arranged like teapots in a row. Two or three
musicians sit behind the frame and play kenong with short
sticks. Other gongs are hung vertically with rope from large
wooden frames. The largest gong of the Javanese gamelan is called
the gong ageng and is almost a yard wide. Its deep, resonant
vibrations sound from the strike of a soft mallet.
Some instruments, like the wooden flute called the suling
as well as the singer, play and sing the melody. Most instruments
play repeating cycles of notes of differing lengths. As a result,
Javanese gamelan tends to create a clock-like, soft, ethereal
soundscape. In the Balinese gamelan style called gong kebyar,
the sound is quite different, with an emphasis on rapid, rippling
pitches. To create the incredibly fast melodies, two players
alternate every other note using a technique called kotekan.
In Java, another function of the gamelan ensemble is to accompany
the incredibly popular wayang kulit, or shadow plays.
In wayang kulit, puppeteers manipulate intricate puppets
behind a white screen that captures their shadows cast by a
single lamp. A gamelan orchestra accompanies the action on the
screen while singers and actors help share folk tales, religious
stories, and local legends. Hundreds of people will come after
sunset to watch and listen to the tales told in the shadow plays.
In addition to a love of gamelan, the island of Bali has many
other musical styles including a fascinating style called kecak.
In the past, kecak performances were sacred events held
at temples, but recently the have moved to concert stages and
hotels as a result of tourism. Taken from the Hindu epic Ramayana,
the dance tells the story of Prince Rama who battles the evil
King Rvana with the help of monkeys.
At a kecak performance, over one hundred performers or
more will often take the stage. Generally, they begin seated
inside a circle facing inward. Growing softer and louder, the
performers chant the word "chuk" in interlocking, polyrhythmic
patterns to create a very complex sound. At various times, a
leader will give calls and the performers move about, raising
and waving their hands to help tell the story.
Folk Into Popular
Just scratching the surface of Indonesian folk music gives one
a sense of the wonderful diversity found in this country. Folk
music has helped spawn new styles of popular music as well.
The thriving popular music scene includes styles such as dangdut,
a Western-style pop music with an Indonesian flavor, and jaipongan,
a popular dance club style from Sunda that uses traditional
Sundanese instruments like gongs and drums. Popular styles are
helping to bridge some of the cultural divides that exist between
the many peoples of Indonesia.