were not only religious leaders but political and military
leaders as well. One of their main goals was to expand Islam. Not all conquered people became Muslims, but they had to pay
higher taxes than Muslim citizens.
Growth of the Muslim Empire
Caliph leaders expanded the Muslim Empire from India to
Spain. became an international city and the center of
Muslim achievements in science, art, and architecture. It had a
huge library called the .
Muslims Support New Ideas
Muslims made significant advances in medicine, mathematics
and . Two outstanding medical scientists wrote texts that
were used throughout Europe for years. Muslim scholars
adopted the system of numerals which is the
system of numbers that we use today. They also advanced the
study of algebra and astronomy. became available to
Art and Literature
Muslim artists became known for their beautiful abstract
designs called as well as their calligraphy.
designed beautiful mosques with minarets. Many are
still standing today. Although Muslims regard the as the
greatest work of literature, they also enjoyed poetry and folk
tales. The is a literary classic from this culture.